A key challenge in driving automation and efficiency in the logistics and supply-chain industry is to make address records machine readable and convert them to precise geocodes. Postal codes have proven to be fairly effective in enabling this in developed countries, e.g., in the UK, they typically resolve any address to 100–200m accuracy. However, in India pin-codes do not seem to provide a promising solution. They represent very large areas (the median area covered by a pin-code ~ 90 sqkm) and may contain up to a million households.

Moreover, when it comes to writing pin-codes, there are hardly any easy-to-access resources that can be relied upon for determining the correct pin-code of an address. This information largely comes from elders in the family. However, as towns and cities expand and new pin-codes are introduced, most people remain unaware of the change and continue using the pin-codes they have grown up with. As a result, 20–30% of written addresses have incorrect pin-codes.